When and by whom had the vandalism of these exquisite and colourful portraits been done? I later learnt that the Buddhist Uyghurs of the Kingdom of Qocho and Turfan, in which Bezekilk was situated, were converted to Islam by conquest during a holy war at the hands of the Muslim Chagatai Khizr Khwaja. Not easy information to assimilate.
Genghis Khan and the Mongol horde’s activities are widely known but not always in detail. What dynasties did they sweep away on their destructive paths of pillage and conquest? Many of the dynasties they conquered were under the influence of Islam. Yet in their turn, these Muslims had overcome Sogdian princedom resistance in the 9th century. Central Asian history can be extremely confusing for the non-specialist.
Into this Central Asian complexity and confusion steps Dr Christoph Baumer with a masterly third installment in his four-volume series on Central Asia covering the Age of Islam and the Mongols. With his consummate academic and archaeological professionalism, Baumer cuts through the historical smokescreen and gives a detailed and authoritative account appropriate for both scholar and layman alike.
“Baumer cuts through the historical smokescreen and gives a detailed and authoritative account appropriate for both scholar and layman alike”
He explains that prior to the 8th century, Islam had established itself in Central Asia through a combination of Iranian book and Turkish sword. Turkic-Muslim dynasties were established and Islam offered an ideological method to break down borders between warring clans and tribes. By the mid-11th century, science, scholarship and the arts flourished as this newly-established Central Asian hegemony spread to other parts of the Muslim world. This cultural development in turn was followed between 1000 and 1220 AD by a complete reconfiguration of the region – ethnically, linguistically and politically – by further Islamic Turkic migrations and through dynasties they established such as the Seljuks, the Karakhanids, and the Ghaznavids.
However, from the mid-12th to the mid-13th centuries, Genghis Khan and his successors abruptly and comprehensively extinguished this cultural Islamic renaissance with the establishment of the largest land empire ever known, more than three times the size of the United States. This empire remained in a mutated form until the last great Mogul of India was deposed in 1857.
The Mongols were secular rulers with no regard for any one particular religion and had a great inquisitiveness about all of them. Not for them the eradication of Buddhist images. ‘Just as God has given the hand several fingers, so he has given mankind several paths,’ explained the religiously broad-minded Great Khan Monke to a Franciscan monk in 1254. But unlike the Muslims, the Mongols did not create political structures in their territories. Their subsequent destructive forays into Russia and Europe brought them into contact with constantly warring European dynasties and principalities, yet not a single Mongol regime was established. What did flourish in the aftermath of their invasions was trade. When in the 1270s the Mongols encountered stern opposition from the Egyptian Mamelukes they abandoned their role of ruthless conquerors and tried to treaty with European kings and popes for military alliances. This was a development of huge consequence for Europeans, which led to the spread of geographical knowledge of an unknown region and more importantly trade with Central Asia.
Many have written about Genghis Khan and his successors’ national and international military campaigns. But seldom has the prose been so lucid and the illustrations so illuminating. In the Great Khan’s own words, ‘All the face of the Earth from the going up of the sun to its going down [has been] given [to me by God].’ Under Baumer’s expert guidance and firm hand, historians, religious scholars and the non-specialist can follow Genghis Khan’s Islamic predecessors and the Mongols along the surface of the Earth.
This review was published in the October 2016 edition of Geographical magazine.