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Spotlight on... Uzbekistan: glittering lights and guest houses

  • Written by  Nick Redmayne
  • Published in Places
The old town bazaar in Bukhara – one of Uzbekistan’s top tourism destinations The old town bazaar in Bukhara – one of Uzbekistan’s top tourism destinations
25 Jun
The most populated country of Central Asia, Uzbekistan has been on a mission to open up since the death of its previous leader in 2016. Nick Redmayne meets the proprietors hoping to take advantage of a tourism boom

Uzbekistan’s remarkable wealth of attractions, from the ancient khanates of Bukhara and Khiva (once political entities ruled by a khan) to Samarkand, once capital of Tamerlane’s empire, have proved a worldwide draw. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, visitor numbers to Uzbekistan were fewer than 100,000 per annum. By 2018, World Bank figures recorded 5,346,000 arrivals. Since independence, more than any other Silk Road state, Uzbekistan has pioneered tourism in Central Asia. 

Inevitably, this rapid rise means that infrastructure has struggled to keep pace. Attempts are now afoot to more evenly distribute the impact of the country’s popularity, share the economic benefits, protect cultural heritage, and reverse rural depopulation. A 2019 decree by Uzbekistan’s President Mirziyoyev contained the aim to attract more than nine million foreign tourists by 2026.

Spotlight UzbekFINAL

This surge of visitors doesn’t often impact the most rural areas. It’s not uncommon to find villages populated almost exclusively by children and the elderly. Those most economically active have left for the promise of jobs in the city, or abroad. Among the elderly, whose pensions have diminished, there’s a rose-spectacled nostalgia for the certainty of the Soviet period, when ‘no one had much, but everyone had enough’. These days, traditional heritage and skills are diminished as men and women abandon their roots, often for good. 

Around 50 kilometres east of Tashkent at Kumyshkang village however, among dwellings originally erected for workers at a former Soviet silver mine, a transformation is taking place. ‘Today is my birthday,’ announces Antonina Germanova, a diminutive and obviously industrious woman in her 60s. Through a metal gate and along a terrace populated by red and white geraniums, Antonina leads the way into a richly decorated living room at her guesthouse, one of the first in Kumyshkang. ‘We’ve just had Chinese people. They stayed for four days,’ she says, pouring tea. 

shutterstock 1401722360At Registan Square in Samarkand, the three madrassahs form a remarkable spectacle

Though the mine has long closed, the village’s location, set below the hilltop mosque of Hazrat Ali, and its healing spring waters, also attracts local visitors. Legislative changes in 2018 reduced tax and bureaucracy for small hospitality businesses, while Community Based Tourism (CBT) organisations provided training and established a framework of standards. 

‘In the beginning, neighbours were curious,’ says Antonina. ‘Then they see how many people come. For me it’s interesting. We exchange information. They ask about life here.’ The guesthouse employs more than a dozen people across three families, including those selling needlework or leading horse-riding treks. ‘I have fifteen beds. Next season I plan to be bigger,’ adds Antonina, with a twinkle.


327 BC Conquered by Alexander the Great
1st-8th centuries Ruled by Persian empires
8th century Invaded by the Arabs and conversion to Islam
13th century Genghis Khan and the Mongols seize the region from the Seljuk Turks 
16th century Uzbeks invade and merge with the other inhabitants
1785 Emirate of Bukhara proclaimed 
1920 Uzbekistan and the rest of Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union
1924 The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic is created
1991 Independence from the Soviet Union 
1992 Admitted to the United Nations

Leaving the village, I am accosted by Adurahman Burhanov, the village’s aksakal, a kind of community magistrate. ‘We have twenty families training to open guesthouses,’ he reports. ‘As tourism brings more people, it brings more money. The village will be tidied up, improved. There are benefits for both sides.’ Then he rushes off, shooing away a donkey nibbling brilliant yellow flowers from his window boxes.


In modern times, Uzbekistan has hardly been an exemplar for innovation or free enterprise. The rule of long-standing president, Islam Karimov, former leader of the communist Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, was characterised as insular, authoritarian and repressive. In 2016, Karimov died. Former prime minster, Shavkat Mirziyoyev took over and was expected to deliver continuity. However, Mirziyoyev surprised many by replacing Karimov-era ministers, releasing opposition leaders from prison and mitigating the excesses of the Uzbek security services. Elsewhere, he reinvigorated Uzbekistan’s international relations, making the first official state visits to Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan since 2000, and in 2019 planning more than thirty trips across the region and beyond. Foreign investment and expertise have been forthcoming. Though a confirmatory election, in which Mirziyoyev gained 86.6 per cent of the vote, was described as ‘a campaign devoid of genuine competition’ by Western monitors, the atmosphere on the streets of Tashkent is cautiously optimistic.

One hundred and twenty kilometres northeast of Tashkent, on the shores of Charvak Reservoir, built to water the cotton crops of Uzbekistan’s former command economy, lies the village Burchmulla. The area has been a popular retreat for Tashkent Uzbeks since the 1960s, close to the wild landscapes of the Ugam-Chatkal National Park. Among orchards and beehives, Burchmulla, in common with nearby villages, has a profusion of guesthouses and dachas. 

IMG 1848 Martaba Tosheva and Murod Yusufiy and familyMartaba Tosheva, Murod Yusufiy and their four children at their guesthouse in Bukhara

Accompanied by Maruf Muradovich, CBT director for Tashkent, I travel to see some of the new developments. Arriving in the village we drive down an unpromising track to the first guesthouse. Behind high walls and metal gates, it isn’t what I expected. Replete with a swimming pool, leather sofas, electric fires, multiple vast TVs and mood lighting, I ask about the clientele. ‘Russian,’ confirms the owner. ‘But not now. Later in the season they come to hunt.’ Maruf enthusiastically describes the new Amirsoy Mountain Resort, a much-delayed USD$100m ski development in the Charvak region, finally opened in December 2019. ‘It’s going to be huge. People from India, China, Singapore, Russia will come to ski, also Gulf Arabic visitors.’

Focusing on more modest investment, Maruf shows me Farohat Tojieva’s guesthouse. Obviously the matriarch, her family property is substantial and of contemporary construction. On the ground floor a sturdy-looking Lada is parked unapologetically next to where we drink tea. ‘I was born here and grew up here,’ says Farohat. ‘I saw neighbours with guesthouses and asked them about the advantages. Then I decided.’ I ask how it has worked out. ‘Good,’ she replies without hesitation. ‘We organise special rubbish collections, four to five times a month in summer. More visitors bring more rubbish. We have a big hole. It all goes in and we cover it with soil.’ What about the future, I ask. ‘I want twice as many guests,’ says Farohat. 

Uzbekistan, along with Liechtenstein, is one of only two double landlocked countries (that is, a landlocked country surrounded by other landlocked countries). The Aral Sea – situated between the southern part of Kazakhstan and northern Uzbekistan – used to provide the country with fresh water and supported a fishing industry. Today however, the lake is a tenth of its former size. Soviet policies of the 1960s deliberately deprived the Aral Sea of its two main sources of water with the aim of diverting these to the desert to promote agriculture, especially cotton.

What was once the fourth-largest lake on earth was decimated. Today, with the Aral Sea largely dried up, fisheries and the communities once dependent on them have collapsed. The water is polluted with fertiliser and pesticides, while dust blowing from the exposed lakebed, contaminated with agricultural chemicals, is a public health hazard. A rescue project in Kazakhstan has seen some success. Funded by the World Bank, the country constructed a 12km-long dyke across the channel that connects the North Aral Sea to the south, and saw a 3.3 metre increase in water level. The story is very different in Uzbekistan. The World Bank has worked on projects to restore the South Aral Sea  but it has had far less success, partly because of the county’s greater reliance on water for cotton production.


Driving back to Tashkent’s railway station, I board Uzbekistan’s Afrosiyob high-speed service to one of the country’s top tourism destinations, Bukhara. Lying close to a strategic crossing of the Amu Darya river, Bukhara’s history is woven into that of the Silk Road. Over the centuries its accrued wealth attracted the attention of notable figures. Genghis Khan’s 1220 visit saw Bukhara’s army butchered, the population executed or sold into slavery and the city razed. Resurgent under Amir Timur from 1370, the city reached an apogee in the 16th century with the Shaybanid dynasty. However, as Silk Road trade diminished, by the 19th century Bukhara was synonymous with its irascible emir, Nasrullah ‘the Butcher’ Khan. Bolshevik armies stormed the gates in 1920. Religious suppression and unsympathetic urban development followed. Old Bukhara was left to crumble until the 1950s.

IMG 1709HotelUzbekistanHotel Uzbekistan, Tashkent

Accompanied by a growing contingent from the local CBT committee I walk through Bukhara’s UNESCO-designated historical centre. Passing souvenir stalls and ancient trading domes we continue beyond the astonishing 48-metre, 12th century Kalyan Minaret which survived Genghis Khan’s ire and Bolshevik artillery. Even in Bukhara however, it isn’t long before active preservation gives way to neglect, ancient structures crumbling quietly beyond the transitory gaze of tour groups. 

Through a maze of alleys, we eventually arrive at the guesthouse of Martaba Tosheva, Murod Yusufiy and their four children, where we are greeted with tea and music. Murod was once a musician, and the couple relish the hospitality business. ‘My wife gives cookery lessons, teaching how to make samsa and Bukhara plov. I teach music. Why not? We decided to build a bigger new house and open as a guesthouse,’ explains Murod. 

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‘We’re very welcoming. Great music. Very good breakfast. It’s part of our tradition. We meet guests with big hearts,’ adds Martaba. ‘We had Spanish guests, a group. At the end, when they left, we were crying too.’

Big hearts haven’t yet suffused the entirety of Bukhara society. Attempting to convert US Dollars to Uzbek Som, I am directed to the inner sanctum of Hotel Asia, a rambling property in the city’s historic centre. Descending several flights of stairs, past faded photographs of local celebrities, I follow ‘Bank’ signs to a part of Uzbekistan that remains forever Soviet. Frequent, emphatic use of ‘niet’ characterises an unsmiling transaction effected with minimum effort by the bank’s corpulent babushkas. I find myself wondering if Genghis Khan ever tried to change money when he visited.


There are more than 3,700 species of plants in Uzbekistan, of which 20 per cent are endemic. Most grow in the mountains with only a few capable of withstanding the desert, where various species of tarantulas, beetles, and scorpions make a home. In the mountains, wolves, sheep, goats and bears roam.

The country’s most famous inhabitant is the snow leopard, which appears as a mythical winged creature on the seal of the city of Samarkand. Only found in 12 countries, all of which are in Central Asia, it is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, with a global population estimated at fewer than 10,000. The major threat is poaching and the subsequent illegal trade in skin and body parts. Climate change is also causing a shift in the treeline of the Himalaya with the result that the alpine zone is shrinking. It is estimated that there are 10,000 sq km of habitable land for the leopards in Uzbekistan, with between 30 and 120 individuals living in the region. Uzbekistan has come together with its neighbours to form the Global Snow Leopard Forum, a conservation initiative that has committed to securing 20 landscapes across the cat’s range by 2020.


Leaving Bukhara, we drive east through endless cotton plantations. Most of the harvest is already gathered, few pickers work the fields. Broken concrete channels recall a more intensive period of production whose thirst for water and insecticides left an unwelcome legacy across Uzbekistan. Still one of the world’s largest producers, Uzbek cotton has been boycotted by Western fashion brands and retailers in response to the use of forced labour. To address this, the Mirziyoyev government banned all child labour and adult enforced-labour in the plantations. However, the Uzbek-German Forum for Human Rights reported in 2018 that public sector workers were still being coerced into unpaid labour.

Arriving after dark in Samarkand, Registan Square’s son-et-lumiere is drawing to a close. Uzbekistan’s headline sight, the three 15th to 17th century madrassahs of Ulegh Beg, Sher-Dor and Tilya-Kori form a remarkable spectacle that transcends an overproduced lighting show. 

IMG 1944 Siab Bazaar SamarkandSiab Bazaar, Samarkand

Next day, I visit Markhaba Nurullaeva’s guesthouse, not far from Registan. ‘I retired after working as a nurse,’ explains the proprietor. ‘Running the guesthouse was my idea. It wasn’t too hard. I’d stayed in guesthouses before, so I knew how things worked.’ I ask what difference the income made. ‘I’m a widow,’ she says. ‘Without this I’d just have the pension, perhaps dividing the house and offering rooms to my grandchildren. Now I give work to my family and advice to others who want to do the same as me.’

Finally, it’s on to Jizzakh. Two hundred kilometres southwest of Tashkent, the Soviet-style industrial city is an unlikely venue for an EU-sponsored film festival. Following one of the events, I catch up with EU ambassador Eduards Stiprais, who has overseen a three-year project supported by the European Investment Bank to encourage community-based tourism in Uzbekistan’s rural areas. ‘We were afraid we could not proceed, but at the end of 2016 there were many changes,’ says Stiprais. ‘Now the president is intentional in terms of tourism. We think not even 10 per cent of the country’s tourism potential is exploited. We hope training will increase economic activity.’ 


Once described as ‘abysmal’, Uzbekistan’s record on human rights has seen moderate improvements. According to Human Rights Watch, two years after assuming the presidency, President Shavkat Mirziyoyev is continuing to take ‘some promising steps to reform the country’s awful human rights record’, in particular releasing some long-serving political prisoners and clamping down on local corruption. At the same time, the government remains authoritarian, elections are far from free and fair, and promising reforms are yet to be implemented. 

The country is well known as a hotspot for forced labour, particularly when it comes to cotton picking. In 2018, the government took measures to enforce a public decree prohibiting the forced mobilisation of public sector workers, including teachers and medical personnel. Nevertheless, reports of staff at state-owned companies being driven out to the countryside to pick cotton during the 2019 harvest were still widespread. 

I ask about other challenges in implementing change. ‘Development of mindset skills is part of the project,’ he says. ‘One problem here, for too long, was that private initiative was suppressed. City merchants were gone. Now it’s time for the rediscovery of old skills. Uzbeks were entrepreneurial people. Let them do business.’

On my final evening in Uzbekistan I wait for a flight to Moscow, looking out over a sleeping Tashkent from a room high up in Hotel Uzbekistan’s concrete cathedral to Soviet hospitality. The hotel defined an era when, for better or worse, along with most aspects of Uzbek life, tourism existed within a prescriptive framework. Recent easing of regulations was born of a singular intention. As development proceeds, the outcomes will inevitably be more varied.

Subscribe to Geographical today for just £38 a year. Our monthly print magazine is packed full of cutting-edge stories and stunning photography, perfect for anyone fascinated by the world, its landscapes, people and cultures. From climate change and the environment, to scientific developments and global health, we cover a huge range of topics that span the globe. Plus, every issue includes book recommendations, infographics, maps and more!

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