Our directory of things of interest

University Directory

Pound stores – an icon of austerity capitalism?

  • Written by  Alison Hulme
  • Published in Opinions
 1000 Words
27 Feb
2015
Pound stores have become ubiquitous on our high streets, more so than since the recession hit

Poundland profits rose by 81 per cent in 2010, and in 2011 increased by another 27 per cent at a time when high streets everywhere were struggling. Their success continues – only last week the company announced it would take over its cheaper rival 99p Stores.

When I first started following pound store products I was not to know quite how topical an issue these types of shops would become. My interest was in conducting a material geography of something utterly ubiquitous – a case study that could add to the classic thing-following studies that already existed, such as Sidney Mintz’s 1986 work on sugar, or more recently Pietra Rivoli’s 2005 exploration into T-shirts

My following of pound store products took me to Chinese rubbish dumps and waste-peddling quarters, to factories, international trade hubs and showcase cities, container ports, overflowing high-street stores and finally to the homes of consumers. Throughout this journey, two key truths emerged.

First, that unlike other commodity chains, the £1 chain thrives on rupture; while many of the key places along it are very established and historically ensconced in the chain, others are in constant flux and the £1 commodity’s journey is a fretful one in which breakages occur, repositionings are forced, and collateral damage is integral.

Pound stores subtly instill a pride in the ability-to-purchase for those usually unable to do so, causing them to remain participants in a capitalist ideal

Second, that despite this, the chain had a logic based on characteristics that did remain constant – a logic I have called the ‘logic of the bargain’. The key elements of this are the ability of Chinese manufacturers to eke out small amounts of profit from minimal resources; the ability to foster alternative local networks of solidarity which enable the sidestepping of newly introduced legalities or processes in China; the ability to transport commodities on a mass scale across the globe without the inventories becoming large, or more importantly, stagnant; and the responsive nature of the stores themselves which exhibit ‘opportunistic supply chains’ and an ‘unstable stocking model ’.

Finally, and perhaps most crucially, the logic of the bargain depends upon the ability of both China and the West to profit from the spending of those with the least financial means. In China, this can be seen in the emphasis on creating a domestic consumer market – unlocking the spending power of a rural reserve army of consumers by improving welfare and so encouraging the spending of savings though ‘golden week’ holidays.

poundland2An increasingly familiar sight on British high streets. (Image: Thinglass)

In the West, where the economic ideology of the necessity for consumer spending shows no sign of abating (not least under austerity), it can be seen in the way that pound stores subtly instill a pride in the ability-to-purchase for those usually unable to do so, causing them to remain participants in a capitalist ideal. Millions of debt-ridden consumers search for cheap products, enabling the stores to become ideal vehicles for what I am calling consumptive thrift.

This plugging of the gaps with the trickle of profits from the poorest manufacturers and shoppers sits in stark contrast to the purported economic aspirations and beliefs of both East and West, whose economies are built on the idea of trickle down. The bargain store places emphasis on those who should be receiving the benefits of trickle down to join the effort to keep us afloat. In fact, consumptive thrift has arisen from the new age of austerity – an austerity in which the cheap functions, not in its own right, but to facilitate the continuation of patterns from past eras – maintaining a psychology of conspicuous consumption that now emphasizes quantity rather than quality, and the ability to waste without concern.

Alison Hulme is a lecturer in Human Geography at Royal Holloway, University of London, and author of On the Commodity Trail: The Journey of a Bargain Store Product from East to West.

Related items

Geographical Week

Get the best of Geographical delivered straight to your inbox every Friday.

Subscribe to Geographical!

EDUCATION PARTNERS

Aberystwyth University University of Greenwich The University of Winchester

TRAVEL PARTNERS

Ponant

Silversea

Travel the Unknown

DOSSIERS

Like longer reads? Try our in-depth dossiers that provide a comprehensive view of each topic

  • The Human Game – Tackling football’s ‘slave trade’
    Few would argue with football’s position as the world’s number one sport. But as Mark Rowe discovers, this global popularity is masking a sinister...
    Essential oil?
    Palm oil is omnipresent in global consumption. But in many circles it is considered the scourge of the natural world, for the deforestation and habita...
    National Clean Air Day
    For National Clean Air Day, Geographical brings together stories about air pollution and the kind of solutions needed to tackle it ...
    The green dragon awakens
    China has achieved remarkable economic success following the principle of developing first and cleaning up later. But now the country with the world's...
    Mexico City: boom town
    Twenty years ago, Mexico City was considered the ultimate urban disaster. But, recent political and economic reforms have transformed it into a hub of...

MORE DOSSIERS

NEVER MISS A STORY - Follow Geographical on Social

Want to stay up to date with breaking Geographical stories? Join the thousands following us on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram and stay informed about the world.

More articles in OPINIONS...

Opinions

Is the world going through another transfer of power? Julian…

Opinions

It’s time to stop relying on traditional commercial methods when…

Opinions

Lack of pollination of commercial crops is an issue of…

Opinions

Where does aid go from here? Pablo Yanguas calls for…

Opinions

Would North Korea give up its nuclear weapons? Would an…

Opinions

It’s time to tackle the hidden superbug menace in India’s…

Opinions

Earlier this month, an international sustainability conference brought together 400…

Opinions

On the Southern edge of the remote Kongsfjorden (King’s Fjord)…

Opinions

Exploring outdoors and in different places is important throughout our…

Opinions

Something has gone badly wrong with our planet’s oceans. If…

Opinions

Taking a wider look at Brexit from a geography standpoint

Opinions

The blockade of imports into Qatar by its Gulf neighbours…

Opinions

Is it time for a new and radical approach to alleviating…

Opinions

Plastic-free aisles in our local supermarkets may just be key…

Opinions

As reports of tourists being fed dog meat in Bali…

Opinions

The idea of rewilding boar into the UK’s landscapes is…

Opinions

2017 is the Chinese year of the chicken. This year, the…

Opinions

Despite the many claims of authenticity, modern filmmaking is still…

Opinions

With medical (and especially dental) tourism on the rise, Vitali…

Opinions

More drugs than you might think are derived from, or…