NATURE

Average summer temperatures experienced by the eastern Canadian Arctic during the past century are higher than they have been at any time over the past 44,000 years, and perhaps as long ago as 120,000 years
Scientists have used a new method for determining biodiversity to reveal a series of new biodiversity hotspots for fish
The decline of shark populations through overfishing can have a detrimental effect on coral reefs, according to a new study published in PLoS One
A new study has found that the Arctic Ocean is acidifying more rapidly and more widely than projected

Ocean mixing explained

A team of researchers has solved the mystery of how deep and mid-depth ocean waters are mixed, providing a vital insight for climate modellers
Parts of Europe have seen the temperatures of their hottest days and coldest nights increase by more than four times the global average change since 1950, according to a new study
Deep water in the Greenland Sea is warming about ten times more rapidly than the global ocean, according to a new study
The puzzling growth of sea ice in parts of Antarctica is probably the result of strengthening winds blowing over the continent, according to a new study
The strongest deep earthquake ever recorded has puzzled seismologists, as it occurred deeper than was previously thought possible
So much rain fell on Australia in 2010 and 2011 that the global sea-level not only stopped rising, but actually dropped measurably, according to a new study
Careful analysis of a 150-year-old moss bank on the Antarctic Peninsula has revealed an unprecedented rate of ecological change since the 1960s, driven by warming temperatures
A new study has found a clear link between earthquake activity and hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, in a small town in Ohio
A team of French scientists has used sediment cores dating back 70,000–80,000 years to resolve a long-standing paradox about the formation of the Arctic ice sheet
Global warming is causing crop pests to spread to higher latitudes at a rate of almost three kilometres a year, a new study has revealed

Hunting the hunters

In an edited extract from new book The Modern Explorers, US conservationist J Michael Fay joins a team of forest guards as they head into the jungles of Gabon on the trail of a gang of elephant poachers
A new study published in Conservation Biology has linked the cashmere garment trade to the destruction of ecosystems that support numerous endangered species

When the wind blows

With 1,200 wind turbines due to be built in the UK this year, Mark Rowe explores the continuing controversy surrounding wind power and discusses the extent to which it can supply our future energy needs
Manta rays have the potential to generate substantial long-term income for many coastal communities around the world. But overfishing in recent years has seen their numbers plummet

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