Our directory of things of interest

University Directory

Follow that phytoplankton: modelling the Antarctic

The journey to the seafloor can indicate where there might be life. Creatures such as sea squirts are ‘suspension feeders’, and with sacs that look like blown glass, they catch phytoplankton as it passes The journey to the seafloor can indicate where there might be life. Creatures such as sea squirts are ‘suspension feeders’, and with sacs that look like blown glass, they catch phytoplankton as it passes Jonny Stark
10 Feb
2018
The biodiversity of the Antarctic seafloor has been modelled for the first time

Relatively little is known about life on the Antarctic seafloor. A combination of deep water, ice and inaccessibility means that the type and abundance of creatures living there have been almost impossible to guess – until now.

By crossing the movements of ocean currents with satellite images of phytoplankton, Jan Jansen, a PhD student at Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, has been able to create breakthrough predictions of life beneath the cold surface.

Why phytoplankton? ‘For most animals on the seafloor, food originating at the ocean surface is their only source,’ says Jansen. Light cannot reach depths below 200 metres, and no light means no photosynthesis, which in turn means no plants. Therefore, the whereabouts of life-giving phytoplankton can largely dictate the biodiversity on the seafloor. Luckily, it can be seen in swarms on the ocean surface from satellites.

‘That’s where it gets tricky,’ says Jansen, ‘because phytoplankton rarely lands directly on the bottom of where it began on the surface. It is shifted around by open water currents first, and then by currents close to the seafloor before it settles.’

Satellite data needed to be collated with maps of the ocean currents. This was then compared to the amount of phytoplankton collected in seafloor core samples. Curiously, Jansen found that the phytoplankton moved around most when in deep currents near the seafloor. ‘The strength and speed of these deep currents was by far the most important factor determining where the phytoplankton settled.’

The ability to predict biodiversity is especially useful for a region that is difficult for scientists to access. While the study was confined to eastern Antarctica, scientists hope the method could be used to generate maps of biodiversity all around the continent. 

This was published in the February 2018 edition of Geographical magazine.

geo line break v3

Free eBooks - Geographical Newsletter

Get the best of Geographical delivered straight to your inbox by signing up to our weekly newsletter and get a free collection of eBooks!

geo line break v3

Related items

Subscribe and Save!

geo line break v3

Free eBooks - Geographical Newsletter

Sign up for our weekly newsletter today and get a FREE eBook collection!

geo line break v3

University of Winchester

geo line break v3

EDUCATION PARTNERS

Aberystwyth University University of Greenwich The University of Derby

TRAVEL PARTNERS

Ponant

Silversea

Travel the Unknown

NEVER MISS A STORY - Follow Geographical on Social

Want to stay up to date with breaking Geographical stories? Join the thousands following us on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram and stay informed about the world.

More articles in NATURE...

Geophoto

Mountains provide a dramatic sight at the best of times,…

Wildlife

A surge in reports of dead hares has resulted in…

Oceans

Four scientists have banded together to make the case against the farming of octopuses, arguing…

Climate

As planetary oil consumption hits the 100-million-barrel mark Marco Magrini…

Oceans

A ship that ran aground early in February has been…

Wildlife

Two whale populations on either side of the African continent…

Geophoto

March traditionally heralds the beginning of spring, a time of…

Wildlife

An innovative project to utilise Laos’ elephant experts in service…

Polar

Despite common belief that Antarctica is vastly uninhabited, humans are…

Wildlife

Javan rhinos survived the recent Krakatoa tsunami, but the species…

Energy

As the world turns away from fossil fuels, one question…

Geophoto

The winners of the Outdoor Photographer of the Year 2018…

Climate

New legislation in Florida aims to solve various environmental issues,…

Polar

The world’s magnetic model is getting an early update, as…

Climate

Marco Magrini looks at the financial pressures spilling out into the…

Geophoto

Few sights are more dramatic than a star-filled sky at…

Polar

A region of Antarctica previously known for relative stability is…

Tectonics

Everything we thought we knew about eruptions could be wrong

Oceans

Sea levels are rising across the globe, but along the…

Polar

Seismometers buried in the Ross Ice Shelf have revealed that…