Our directory of things of interest

University Directory

Follow that phytoplankton: modelling the Antarctic

The journey to the seafloor can indicate where there might be life. Creatures such as sea squirts are ‘suspension feeders’, and with sacs that look like blown glass, they catch phytoplankton as it passes The journey to the seafloor can indicate where there might be life. Creatures such as sea squirts are ‘suspension feeders’, and with sacs that look like blown glass, they catch phytoplankton as it passes Jonny Stark
10 Feb
2018
The biodiversity of the Antarctic seafloor has been modelled for the first time

Relatively little is known about life on the Antarctic seafloor. A combination of deep water, ice and inaccessibility means that the type and abundance of creatures living there have been almost impossible to guess – until now.

By crossing the movements of ocean currents with satellite images of phytoplankton, Jan Jansen, a PhD student at Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, has been able to create breakthrough predictions of life beneath the cold surface.

Why phytoplankton? ‘For most animals on the seafloor, food originating at the ocean surface is their only source,’ says Jansen. Light cannot reach depths below 200 metres, and no light means no photosynthesis, which in turn means no plants. Therefore, the whereabouts of life-giving phytoplankton can largely dictate the biodiversity on the seafloor. Luckily, it can be seen in swarms on the ocean surface from satellites.

‘That’s where it gets tricky,’ says Jansen, ‘because phytoplankton rarely lands directly on the bottom of where it began on the surface. It is shifted around by open water currents first, and then by currents close to the seafloor before it settles.’

Satellite data needed to be collated with maps of the ocean currents. This was then compared to the amount of phytoplankton collected in seafloor core samples. Curiously, Jansen found that the phytoplankton moved around most when in deep currents near the seafloor. ‘The strength and speed of these deep currents was by far the most important factor determining where the phytoplankton settled.’

The ability to predict biodiversity is especially useful for a region that is difficult for scientists to access. While the study was confined to eastern Antarctica, scientists hope the method could be used to generate maps of biodiversity all around the continent. 

This was published in the February 2018 edition of Geographical magazine.

geo line break v3

Free eBooks - Geographical Newsletter

Get the best of Geographical delivered straight to your inbox by signing up to our weekly newsletter and get a free collection of eBooks!

geo line break v3

BLACK FRIDAY 2

geo line break v3

Free eBooks - Geographical Newsletter

geo line break v3

EDUCATION PARTNERS

DurhamBath Spa600x200 Greenwich Aberystwythherts

TRAVEL PARTNERS

Ponant

Silversea

Travel the Unknown

NEVER MISS A STORY - Follow Geographical on Social

Want to stay up to date with breaking Geographical stories? Join the thousands following us on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram and stay informed about the world.

More articles in NATURE...

Wildlife

With growing global awareness of the risks of hunting and…

Climate

Researchers have identified the extent of microplastic contamination throughout the…

Wildlife

The Thames Estuary has long been home to heavy industry,…

Wildlife

Whydahs and indigobirds, collectively known as the vidua finches, show…

Oceans

Whales sequester an enormous amount of carbon, making their protection…

Geophoto

In his ongoing photographic project, Carpathia, Nicholas J R White…

Energy

Artificial intelligence offers high potential solutions to the climate crisis,…

Wildlife

Rewilding projects across Europe are working to expand populations of…

Wildlife

Scientists are racing to prevent a deadly disease that kills…

Wildlife

Birds are a much-loved component of the natural world, serenading…

Tectonics

The unprecedented pause in human activity that took place during…

Wildlife

Since 2006, tiger habitats have shrunk by more than 40…

Climate

Advances in space-based lightning mapping have allowed scientists to measure…

Energy

The amount of energy used by the wealthy minority dwarfs…

Wildlife

Left denuded and depleted of wildlife following a decades-long civil…

Climate

Katie Burton explores the practicalities and ethics of geoengineering, the…

Energy

Though the pandemic has gripped the world's attention, lying just…

Climate

The IPCC embraced the notion of carbon offset schemes in…